Manual A Walk in the Garden: Biblical Iconographical and Literary Images of Eden (JSOT Supplement)

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Bockmuehl and G. Stroumsa eds , Paradise in Antiquity. But the first problem to treat is the ultimate source of these rivers, the one primary stream. This would have no obvious parallel in the iconographic tradition, however realistic it may be. This would allow harmonisation with the Eden of Ezekiel 28, which is situated on a mountain. Gordon noted that Ida, the high mountain in central Crete, was associated in antiquity with artistic workmanship. Rivers do not rise; they descend. What rises from the earth to water the ground is a mountain carrying its streams to the surrounding countryside.

Further support for such a harmonisation can be found in the vision of a future paradise in Isaiah 11, see v. Leo Oppenheim ed. Black et al. Hesiod, Theogony, p. Wyatt, The Mythic Mind. See N. A Royal Garden: The Ideology of Eden 9 be observed that on the Mari fresco, to be discussed below, the foreground at the bottom shows a scale-pattern, which is the conventional way of representing mountains in glyptic art.

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The mountain would, as in the description here, not only arise out of the netherworld, but implicitly afford an entrance to it, a feature of cosmic centres such as this garden represents, if my argument is cogent. This centrality is borne out by the reference to the four rivers, logically schematically radiating out from the centre. This approach would also obviate the necessity felt by some scholars to see in Genesis and Ezekiel 28 two different conceptions of Eden one with, and one without, a mountain.

It makes more sense to see two allusions to the same common symbolic tradition, and indeed in this instance to see one Genesis as literarily dependent on the other Ezekiel , as we shall see. In Isaiah 14, the disobedient royal figure is the king of Babylon, or some other great power, but the narrative is a West Semitic myth. The first deals with a fallen god, and the second apparently with the first man in Eden.

If we read the two together, in the light of the fallen figure in Isaiah, we see that the two figures are one, and that the problems in reading this text come from our using categories and distinctions quite alien to Ezekiel. The fallen god and the figure expelled from Eden were one and the same. Thus Ezekiel forms a link between Isaiah 14 and Genesis Furthermore, Bernard Gosse, followed by Terje Stordalen, also noted that the oracle of Ezekiel 28,12b, directed in its present form against the ruler of Tyre, would originally have been addressed to the high priest for which we should perhaps read rather the king in Jerusalem.

Barker, The Older Testament.

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The other two have been regarded as problematic. See M. Becking and P. Brill, 2. Maher, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Genesis. Wyatt, Religious Texts, p. Wyatt, The Mythic Mind, p. Tsumura, Creation and Destruction. Cited as 1. Judges 5,17 before its migration to northern Galilee. A link with the sea peoples is suggested for Dan and Asher by Judges 5,17 and for Zebulun by Genesis 49, The Egyptian and Ugaritic etymological proposals for Pishon are both attractive.

Koehler and W. Brill, , iv p. The older assessment by F. Brown, S. Driver and C. See below at n. Xella ed. See reasons ad loc. Whether or not this be regarded as a viable etymology, it is at least a likely paronomasia, and the Gihon also had a local reference, as the stream supplying Jerusalem with water, and also used in royal rituals, as in 1 Kings 1, See Wyatt, Myths of Power, p. See Wyatt, Myths of Power, pp. For further examples of prophetic allusions of this kind see Ezekiel To reject the original identification of the paradisal and the Jerusalem Gihon in view of this evidence, on the strength of its later identification with the Nile Jeremiah LXX et al.

What we have here are two different explanations for the data, which on any analysis remain incompatible. To my mind the local significance of the Gihon for Jerusalem is to be taken seriously, in view of the evidence we have adduced. That is, he was intentionally evoking Jerusalem, even if not wishing to name it.

Hinrich, , pp. It should be clear that the claims of the Gihon in Jerusalem to be linked with that of the Eden narrative cannot be squared with claims for identification with the Nile. Koehler and Baumgartner, Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon, p. Regarding his identification of the Gihon with the Nile, see discussion above. Janowski and B. Rohl, The Lost Testament. Note also the brief and inconclusive survey of views in C. Collins, Genesis See also J.

Delumeau, History of Paradise. The point of allusions to the Tigris and the Euphrates in a Jerusalem-centred text is surely to extend the sacrality of the latter, the place from which the Jews had been deported, to the place of their exile a feature which obviously has a bearing on the dating of the text. We have in the description of the rivers a somewhat convoluted account of a classic cosmic model: the river emerges from its source at the true centre, and flows out via various branches to an ocean which surrounds a circular world.

See also discussion in A. Scafi, Mapping Paradise. Zevit, What Really Happened, pp. Among various examples, we may note the Vercelli world map ca , where Paradise is located in India Scafi, Mapping Paradise, figs 6. The Hereford Mappa Mundi ca is similar.

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The Mythic Mind, pp. Genesis serves as a narrative of an original, archetypal exile, prefiguring the historical one. Other biblical support for the location of Eden in Jerusalem A reason from within the text for supporting the line I take53—that Eden is in Jerusalem—is the fact which we noted above, that there is only one river actually within the garden. Given the post-exilic dating now increasingly recognised for the story, this is best understood as a deliberate allusion to Ezekiel 47,, which in the prophetic vision of the new temple, describes a stream flowing out from beneath the stone pavement on the eastern side of the temple building, and then flowing south out of the temenos, and on down to the Arabah.

See W. See the selection of texts in Wyatt, Space and Time, pp. Aschehoug, See D. See also Barker, The Gate of Heaven, pp. Stager, Jerusalem and the garden of Eden, Eretz Israel 26 , pp. Wood, Of Wings and Wheels. Here are the justifications for recognising a throne in Psalm ,7. This is widely identified with the rock under the Dome of the Rock, with its conspicuous crevices, into which water was poured during the New Year rites, to prime the source of all life.

Ecclesiasticus Ben Sira 24,, which evidently shares the cosmological presuppositions of Genesis 2, states that Wisdom brims like the Pishon, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Jordan! Some other scholars have also endorsed this view. It was associated with royal burials, and it is perhaps on this account—if my identification is correct—that post- biblical tradition located the burial places of various ancient patriarchs here.

Adam is buried in Eden according to Jubilees 4,29, and in the earthly paradise, while his soul ascends to the heavenly paradise above third heaven , in the Life of Adam and Eve Apocalypse version , with Abel in 37,; 40,6 and with Eve in 43,1.

See R. Patai, Man and Temple London; Nelson, , p. Ta can 25b. Note that in this passage the Gihon and the Nile are distinct, in a series of six. Note the double function of the throne, of deity and monarch in Psalm Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha vol. A Royal Garden: The Ideology of Eden 17 and in the new Jerusalem shall the righteous rejoice and 1 Enoch 61, All the elect who dwell in the garden of life shall bless him. Perhaps the garden motif was intended to embrace the various aspects of the sacred landscape.

On one level of understanding, the garden is a synecdoche for the whole kingdom, the land flowing with milk and honey.


Here Zion itself is a synecdoche. See further, M. Barker, The Older Testament, pp. Knecht, , pp. See also Stordalen Echoes of Eden, pp. And the whole was filled with arboreal imagery. For such imagery as architectural form in the temple, see 1 Kings 6, This states 3,24 that [the Lord of the gods] set in front of the garden of Eden cherubs and the flame of the whirling sword, to guard the way to the tree of life.

The cherubs were sphinxes, and are frequently found in royal contexts, as armrests on thrones,67 attendants at or browsers on trees, and so on. So their presence here should not surprise the reader.

Genesis Garden of Eden

What does perhaps cause surprise is that the man, thrown out of the garden, suddenly becomes aware of these creatures from the wrong side of the fence, as it were. But the sphinxes were probably already there, guaranteeing his safety within the garden. This is supported by the cherub apparently provided as a guardian to the king69 of Tyre in the garden in Ezekiel 28, But since a sword is an essential attribute of the king as warrior, we may see something of this symbolic dimension in it.

It is consonant with the idea of the House of the Forest as armoury. Wood, Of Wings and Wheels, pp. Alternatively, the cherub was the king himself: G. See the Ahiram sarcophagus from Byblos. See Wyatt, Religious Texts, p. My layout of the text above, making the allusion a bicolon, would accommodate any of these interpretations. We are led to this suspicion by the precise phraseology of various parts of the text. Thus Genesis 2,9 states: Then the Lord of the gods caused to grow from the ground every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for eating, and the tree of life in the middle of the garden, and the tree of knowing all things.

The second tree here appears almost as an afterthought—in an appositional phrase—and certainly cannot logically, according to a straightforward prose understanding of this verse, which is usually presupposed, also be located as a separate tree at the centre of the garden, where we would expect to find it. A better solution was suggested to me by Anthony J. Frendo, that we should recognise here an example of waw explicativum, in which the phrase introduced by the particle further expounds the meaning of what precedes. Thus the latter part of 2,9 is to be understood, following his suggestion, as the tree of life in the middle of the garden, that is, the tree of knowing all things.

But verse frequently performs exactly as Anthony J. Frendo suggested see n. Interestingly, Philo placed the first tree of knowing all things outside the garden, because to have it inside would contradict the command to eat from every tree 2. But the logic of this is to require Adam and Eve to leave the garden in order to sin, which is not the understanding of Genesis. Frendo, personal communication. The recognition that we have verse here, not prose, reinforces this view: the second colon draws out the implications of the first. Thus the same tree is to be understood. So just as Jean Margueron found the one tree in the courtyard to correspond to two in the painting in the Mari palace on which see further below , we may think similarly that the two trees in Eden are really one.

Mettinger, surveying the extensive discussion over the number of trees, and the problem of priority if there is only one, pointed out that the characters in the story, Adam and Eve, know of only one tree. Furthermore, one of the ideological features we shall note below contradicts the idea that eating from this tree intrinsically constitutes a crime.

But the real issue to appreciate is the rich symbolism of the tree or trees, however understood. The final explanation offered here emphasises the symbolic richness. Petersen, — Graver, Margaret R. Stoicism and Emotion. Greenblatt, Stephen. The Rise and Fall of Adam and Eve. Gruber, Mayer I. Helm, Paul. Mann, — Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. Hinterberger, Martin. Phthonos: Missgunst, Neid und Eifersucht in der byzantinischen Literatur. Serta Graeca Wiesbaden: Reichert. Paris: Cerf. Kim, Angela Y. December Konstan, David.

Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Kraus, Helen. Oxford Theological Monographs. Kruger, Paul A. Kugel, James L. The Bible as It Was. New York: Free Press. Layton, Bentley. The Gnostic Scriptures. Anchor Bible Reference Library. Levison, John R. MacRae, George W. Mattern, Susan P. Studies in Ancient Medicine Mettinger, Tryggve N. Winona Lake, Illinois: Eisenbrauns. Metzger, B. Meyers, Carol. Sup VT Murray, Oswyn. Early Greece. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Philo of Alexandria. On the Creation.

Translated by F. Colson and G. LCL Plamper, Jan. The History of Emotions: An Introduction. Translated by Keith Tribe. Prothero, Stephen. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Provan, Iain. Discovering Genesis. Discovering Biblical Texts. Radden, Jennifer. New York: Oxford University Press. Stoicism in Early Christianity. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. Reddy, William M. Reuling, Hanneke.

Jewish and Christian Perspectives Series Ridderbos, Herman N.


Bibliography G-N | Academy for Temple Studies

Translated by John Vriend. Rosenwein, Barbara H.

Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages. Rothschild, Clare K. Thompson, eds. Sarna, Nahum M. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Savage, John J. Fathers of the Church Scaer, David P. Scheiner, Winfried. Melancholy, Genius, and Utopia in the Renaissance. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Schlimm, Matthew R.


Siphrut: Literature and Theology of the Hebrew Scriptures 7. Schmid, Konrad. Shearing, Linda S. Kirk-Duggan and Tina Pippin, 85— Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Book Description Sheffield Academic Press, Seller Inventory Condition: NEW. Print on Demand title, produced to the highest standard, and there would be a delay in dispatch of around 10 working days. For all enquiries, please contact Herb Tandree Philosophy Books directly - customer service is our primary goal.

Seller Inventory APC Book Description Sheffield Academic Press. Seller Inventory ING Publisher: Sheffield Academic Press , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title This collection of essays by notable scholars offers a unique, multi-faceted approach to the understanding of the Garden story.