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Ellen Bialystok - Google Scholar Citations
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In: Applied Psycholinguistics, 28 2 , pp. Paradis, J. In: Journal of Child Language, 22, pp. Patterson, J. In: Applied Psycholinguistics, 23 4 , pp. In: B. Goldstein Ed. Baltimore, Maryland, pp. Pearson, B. Reading is one of the most important skills learned in early childhood. Yet many young learners fail to meet the national standards in reading achievement, and young bilingual learners often are represented in this low-achieving group Pugh et al.
The goal of this paper is to explore how bilingualism affects the development of literacy in bilingu al children, bilingual children with dyslexia, and monolingual children with dyslexia who are learning to read in a new language. For example, studies comparing bilinguals learning English and a language with a more phonologically-transparent orthography e. Evidence of the benefits of cross-linguistic transfer has also been found for speakers of similar e. For instance, when reading nonwords in English, young Spanish-English and French-English bilinguals showed greater activation in left superior temporal and lower activation in left inferior frontal regions, as compared to English monolinguals.
Left temporal regions are thought to support phonological analyses for more direct and rule-governed sound-to-print mappings Paulesu et al. Dysfunction of left posterior temporal regions is often implicated in dyslexia Hoeft et al. In sum, accumulating evidence with bilingual learners of two alphabetic languages suggests that learning in a phonologically-transparent orthography e.
Bilingualism is a fundamentally linguistic experience.
Bilingualism In Development: Language, Literacy, & Cognition - Ellen Bialystok
The focus of this article will be on the impact of bilingualism on language-related processes in dyslexia, such as phonological awareness. Learners of Similar Scripts. At the same time, this does not preclude young bilinguals with dyslexia from developing language-specific reading strategies in each of their languages.
For example, bilingual children learning to read in English and Afrikaans a language that has descended from Dutch and is more phonologically-transparent than English have been found to have phonological deficits in each of their languages.
outer-edge-design.com/components/messages/4068-cell-snooping.php When reading English, the more opaque language, these Afrikaans-English bilinguals with dyslexia applied both phonological, sounding-out strategies for phonologically predictable words and additional lexical, meaning-based strategies for phonologically unpredictable words —similar to typically developing readers of English. An important implication of this and similar findings is that bilingual children with dyslexia can and do benefit from early literacy intervention under certain circumstances:.
More intriguingly, however, bilingual children with dyslexia who are learning to read in a phonologically-transparent orthography Italian have also been found to have better phonological literacy skills in their phonologically-opaque language English than their monolingual English peers with dyslexia Siegel, in press.
Learners of Different Scripts. Similar to alphabetic languages, phonological awareness is also important for learning to read in character-based languages like Chinese Ho et al. Chinese-English bilinguals have been found to transfer phonological reading skills across their two languages Geva et al.
Chinese children with dyslexia are likely to have lower levels of phonological awareness and difficulty learning English as a second language Ho et al. In addition, they show reduced activation in temporo-parietal brain regions when completing literacy tasks in English You et al. In Chinese-English bilinguals with Chinese-only reading impairments, these impairments are often characterized by select deficits in morphological awareness McBride et al.
Morphological awareness, the ability to manipulate the smallest units of meaning e. Newly-emerging evidence suggests both an overlap and a dissociation between the brain bases for phonological and morphological awareness Arredondo et al. This overlap might be greater in Chinese than in Indo-European languages Zhao et al.
Recent evidence suggests that during morphological awareness tasks in Chinese as compared to a control word matching-task , adult typical readers of Chinese show significant activation in posterior superior temporal regions typically associated with phonological analyses as well as middle temporal regions typically associated with lexico-semantic analyses Ip et al. In particular, in English these salient units are likely to be meaningless phonological units such as syllables in the word cat-er-pil-lar , and in Chinese these salient units are likely to be meaningful morphemic units such as in the word foot-ball.
This dysfunction in operating upon these phonological and morphological units is likely associated with the functionality of left posterior temporal regions. Research with bilingual children with dyslexia learning typologically contrasting languages e. Ideally, we should ensure that the child has the opportunity to learn to read sufficiently in his or her primary language of use at the same time as the child learns to read less familiar languages. Learning to read requires linking spoken language representations with print, which is best accomplished in the language of greatest proficiency Goldenberg, ; Mortimore et al.
This will allow the child to form the basics of literacy that she can then transfer from her native language into her new language Cummins et al. If my child is monolingual and has dyslexia, is it OK to learn a second language? In many parts of the world, whether one has dyslexia or not, children must learn to read in more than one language.
Unfortunately, children with dyslexia will find it difficult and time-consuming to learn to read in a new language, regardless of whether the language has a similar or a different orthography Ho et al. Parents are often concerned that using a non-community language as the language of their home will disadvantage their children. This program of research provides solid evidence that the overwhelming effect of bilingualism in the home is positive. The disadvantages are relatively minor and easily overcome. The implications for schooling are more complex. In all these cases, children must be skilled in the forms and meanings of the school language and be competent readers of that language.
Bilingual children may not be at the same level as their monolingual peers, and second-language learners for whom English or French is not their home language may have not built up adequate skills in the instructional language to succeed in schools, although the vocabulary gap between monolingual and bilingual children disappears if only school-based words are considered. Bialystok E. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Updated September Accessed September 21, Skip to main content.
Second language In the era of globalization, learning a second language during childhood can provide developmental and social benefits. September , 2 nd rev.
How Bilingualism Puts Emergent Readers at An Advantage
PDF version. Problems Information about the language, cognitive and educational development of children with varied language backgrounds is essential to interpret the performance of these children in school and assess their development. Research Context The research is typically conducted in classrooms, often settings containing both multilingual and monolingual children. Key Research Questions The important issues that follow from linguistic diversity are the cognitive and educational outcomes for bilingual children. Recent Research Results There are three main outcomes from this research.
Implications Parents are often concerned that using a non-community language as the language of their home will disadvantage their children. References review in Hakuta K. Mirror of language: the debate on bilingualism.
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