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In urban areas, particularly in the major cities, often the demand for public transport far outstrips the supply. Consequently, as Gakenheimer , p. In rural areas, on the contrary, the situation might be different where low demand is hindering provision of frequent public transport services in a cost-effective manner. A number of factors influence the shape of the public transport system of a city or region. For instance, according to Simpson , the size of city, level of development or urbanization, travel pattern, and land use are the most significant factors influencing the public transport system.

External factors are the attributes related to public transport service and their operation, which are often beyond the control of the user i. These factors that determine selection of a particular travel mode could be grouped as the characteristics of the 'trip', the 'trip maker', and the 'transport system' RAHMAN, a, Thus, the provision of public transport for a city or region should be matched with the development level and travel pattern of the city.

How Smart Transport Solutions Can Help Developing Countries Build More Smart Cities

The objective of this paper is to explore the existing public transport situation and the travel pattern in a small developing island of a developing country. Considering the travel pattern of people and their expectation regarding the public transport, the paper also tries determining the appropriate form of public transport for the island and guidelines to provide "suitable" public transport facilities.

The study confines itself only to land transport. Siquijor, an island province of the Central Visayas in the Philippines, is the study area for the research. The island circumferential National Road, the major arterial, links all municipality centres. The built-up area of the island is only 2. The economy of the island is mostly based on agriculture. A comprehensive field survey of households was carried out for investigating the travel patterns of the people of Siquijor island. Due to resource constraints only households 0. A total of individual respondents were found valid and considered for the analysis.

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Besides the household interview, a detailed observation was made of the public transport systems and a participatory observation was performed to gain insights into the public transport services and supporting infrastructure facilities. Passengers waiting at the public transport terminal were also interviewed to assess service levels and 66 passengers using different modes were selected randomly from three major terminals i.

Siquijor, Larena, Lazi. However, the research is mainly based on household information with additional information from the passenger interviews. Both questionnaires used had several sections to collect socio-economic and demographic information, details about each trip made on the previous day, and details on their usage of public transport i.

Besides these, the household survey questionnaire had a separate section of Stated Preference questions to explore preference among various public transport modes, as well as different scenarios of time and fare for travel on various modes. Discussions were also carried out with responsible agencies, political representatives, and transport associations, and relevant documents and project activities from the province have been reviewed and studied. Despite the very low household income there is a complete absence of cycle-rickshaw called 'pedicab' in the Philippines and bicycle in the Siquijor island.

A city or region in the Philippines or in other countries having the socio-economic conditions similar to Siquijor has bicycles and cycle-rickshaws as common mode. Nevertheless, the hilly topography of Siquijor might be the reason for the absence of cycle-rickshaw and bicycle.

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Transport in Development (Developing Countries)

Rahman also reported hilly topography as the cause of low bicycle and rickshaw use. Provincial Profile reported that there were only vehicles for hire, of which only 83 were utility vehicles and tricycles, to serve around 81, inhabitants of the island. The following sections briefly describe existing public transport systems on the island, people's travel patterns and trip characteristics, service levels and people's preferences of the existing public transport attitude towards public transport , and finally the respondents' expectations about the services of various public transport modes.

Existing public transport operating in Siquijor island can be grouped in two categories: fixed-route services bus, jeepney and easyride , and door-to-door services habalhabal and tricycle. Buses and jeepneys operating in the island are similar in terms of their passenger capacity, services and fare. The size of buses operating is very small capacity of 42 seats. Only four minibuses are operating on the Larena - Lazi via Enrique Villanueva and Maria route and daily provide around eight trips in each direction.

Only 15 jeepneys are operating on the Siquijor - Lazi route while 24 on the Larena - Lazi route provide around 16 trips daily in each direction. Both the bus and jeepney stop frequently at any time and any place if a passenger wants to get off alight or on board , which significantly affects the travel time and operation speed of vehicles. Average trip time for a distance of 30 km between Larena and Lazi via Maria is 90 minutes on bus and 90 to minutes on jeepney.

Though the operators of bus and jeepney had decided on a headway of 30 minutes for both routes and in each direction, in practice, drivers wait more time making delay in order to get more passengers. The fare is same for both jeepney and bus and their service level is also similar. Easyride is faster than jeepney or bus and a common mode on the national road of Siquijor, Larena, Enrique Villanueva, and San Juan municipalities.


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Usually there are 40 trips in each direction every day between Siquijor and Larena by easyride, taking 30 to 40 minutes for a distance of 12 km. Observation of easyrides at Siquijor terminal gave an average headway of 35 minutes. Despite the permission for operating easyride only up to San Juan Poblacion; sometimes they go up to barangay Catulayan, 8 km further ahead on the border of San Juan Figure 1.

On the other hand, around 25 easyrides are operating on the Larena - Enrique Villanueva route and every day provide around 20 trips in each direction with an average headway of 18 minutes. However, more frequent service i. This is due to heavy demand created by the large number of students travelling to their college in Larena. Despite the permission to operate up to Enrique Villanueva Poblacion, as with the other route, they operate 6 km ahead up to barangay Lotloton. Between Larena and Enrique Villanueva Poblacion, a distance of 12 km, easyride takes around minutes with a fare of P8.

Usually easyrides are available between am and pm and there is no specific time-schedule or stopping points. Tricycle is suitable for short-distance trips in less hilly areas and provides door-to-door services between am and pm. However, sometimes a few of them operate on certain fixed routes.

Because of the hilly topography, very few tricycles are operating in the municipality of Enrique Villanueva, Maria, and Lazi. Fares for tricycles are determined by the local government unit LGU on a km rate basis. Habalhabal is the only mode which is accessible in mountainous areas where other modes i. There are about habalhabal in the island RAHMAN, a , available for a ride at any time; however, a very high fare depending on bargain is applied after pm.

Even though fares of habalhabal are not fixed, the drivers almost always follow a similar fare structure. The per km fare is higher for longer distance trips compared with shorter ones. Interestingly, the fare for the same distance uphill is more than downhill; e. Poblacion Siquijor to Ponong is P20 while in the reverse direction it is P Fares on habalhabal are much higher compared with other modes. For example, Siquijor to Larena is P30 on habalhabal where it is only P8 on jeepney or easyride. Socio-economic and demographic profile of the sample population are almost similar to the secondary information of the island, which reveals that the sample is representative of the whole population.

It was found that more trips are made by higher income groups or people having a household vehicle. This observation is very common and in line with transport literature. However, in some cases depending on socio-economic condition and city size or pattern , the obvious observation of transport literature is not available in the developing world. For instance, vehicle owners do not make more trips compared with others and the frequency of trip for both higher-income group and poor-income group is almost similar in the central area of Khulna city in Bangladesh RAHMAN, The majority of trips originate from home and start between am and am whilst the return trips to home are around noon and between pm and pm.

Though average trip distance is 5. The respondents had been asked the reason for using their travel mode and almost half of them mentioned either 'unavailability of any other mode' or 'convenient'. However, the reasons are diverse; for instance, 'short distance', 'have no money' or 'no transport available' are given by pedestrians, whilst 'convenient' or 'have family, hence cheaper' are given for private vehicles.

On the other hand, habalhabal users mostly mentioned 'unavailability of any other mode' or 'go[es] close to destination' or 'less waiting time' while tricycle users mentioned 'less waiting time'. In contrast, 'safety' or 'less travel time' or 'less waiting time' for easyride; 'cheaper' or 'comfort' for jeepney; and 'comfort' or 'safety' for bus have been reported by the majority of passengers.

Each individual trip had been considered in the analysis of trip characteristics and there were a total of trips. Trip distance reveals that the public transport modes dominate for distances between 1 and 15 km Figure 2. Surprisingly, trips on private vehicles have been found for very short distances such as less than 0.

However, the number of trips on private vehicles increases if the trip distance is longer. For instance, the number of trips by private vehicle is more than that of public transport when the distance is over 15 km. The number of trips on public transport increases over walking if the distance is more than 1 km and that trend continues. Benin, for example, has pledged as part of its INDC to improve traffic flow in large cities, to develop a river-lagoon transport system with navigable rivers, and to modernize and extend its rail infrastructure.

Bangladesh has identified as potential mitigation action modal shift from road to rail, including through metro systems and bus rapid transport systems in urban areas. Bangladesh also mentioned reducing traffic congestion, including by building expressways and with public transport measures.

To support these commitments, the 8 Multilateral Development Banks have pledged to increase financial and technical assistance to countries implementing sustainable transport solutions. The MDBs, in their transport statement, emphasize the importance of improving the climate resilience of transport systems and commit to build awareness on the criticality of protecting transport services so that they can continue to deliver social and economic benefits under current and future climate change scenarios. The World Bank has been working with client countries to ensure that transport plans and investments are robust to current and future climate: for example in Morocco where the World Bank conducted a study on the adaptation of the Moroccan transport sector to climate change and evaluated the vulnerability of the road sections; or in Can Tho City, Vietnam, where it looked at the costs to transport from flooding.

The World Bank is now committed, in partnership with the MDBs and other key actors in the transport community, to scale up resources and expertise to clients to enable them to integrate climate change analysis into transport plans and investments and to thus enhance local and countrywide climate resilience. You have clicked on a link to a page that is not part of the beta version of the new worldbank.

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Improvement Of The Existing Public Transport — People prefer commuting through personal vehicles because that is faster and more convenient mode of transportation. But if the services and the system is improved, people would start opting for public transport. For example, buses should be integrated with intelligent traffic control systems where the signal lights are adjusted automatically optimising the movement of the buses within the city based on real time traffic information.

Computer-aided Bus Dispatch, Bus Priority Signals and Real Time Passenger Information can rapidly enhance the traffic flow and take the quality and serviceability of the buses to a higher level. Application Of Open Data — The open-source platform is the most inexpensive way that can help accumulate data related to public transport accessibility, monitor and record road safety, public transport routing data, substitute travel route information and execute travel surveys.

The applications of open data can serve governments and the managers of the developing cities in carrying out efficient planning and implementations at minimal cost. The open data has full potential to help create affordable transport system and hence overcome the major challenges of transport in developing nations. The open-source approach is already aiding Manila. Mexico, New York and Boston in building up good transport strategies. Travel Shift From Peak To Non-Peak Hours — In , the Indian IT company Infosys initiated an ICT-supported incentive project to encourage the employees of the company to travel to its suburban campus at different times in a day — this considerably helps reduce the traffic congestion in the morning peak hours.

Similarly, New York and Singapore is deploying such tools to shift the travel demand from peak to non-peak hours. Such pilot programs can divert the cities to huge financial savings by not investing in constructing additional roads and metros. The same kind of platform can be put to use in the developing cities to draw the attention of communities and citizen in participating in activities that address the supply as well as demand related challenges in the transport system.

For example, it can be used in monitoring road construction and maintenance, in giving account on road accidents, analysing safety and security concerns, gathering info on vehicle sharing, curtailing unreasonable occupancy on pedestrians pathway and bicycle lanes and many more such issues can be solved upfront. According to Kevin Pillay, the Vice President For Mobility At Siemens Africa, the African continent has already started to work towards creating interconnected, modern and efficient transport systems that support the economy.

The existing transport infrastructure coupled with electrification, automation and digitisation will create smart mobility that features safety, efficiency, and reliability. It involves the implementation of smart sensor networks integrated with intelligent algorithms to automatically adjust in trying to enhance traffic flow.