Available data are not sufficient to make a precise estimate of the fraction of ingested fibers that pass through the gastrointestinal wall, but there is agreement that it is a very small amount.
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Several researchers have found that the average length of fibers in extra-gastrointestinal tissues or fluids is shorter than the average length of the fibers ingested, suggesting that short fibers pass through the gastrointestinal epithelium more easily than long fibers. As discussed above, asbestos fibers can penetrate into the skin, producing asbestos warts. No studies were located that indicate that asbestos fibers can pass through the skin into the blood.
San Diego,Calif. Although all forms of asbestos are considered hazardous, different types of asbestos fibers may be associated with different health risks. For example, the results of several studies suggest that amphibole forms of asbestos may be more harmful than chrysotile, particularly for mesothelioma risk, because they tend to stay in the lungs for a longer period of time.
Many studies have shown that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure is particularly hazardous. Smokers who are also exposed to asbestos have a risk of developing lung cancer that is greater than the individual risks from asbestos and smoking added together. There is evidence that quitting smoking will reduce the risk of lung cancer among asbestos-exposed workers. Smoking combined with asbestos exposure does not appear to increase the risk of mesothelioma.
However, people who were exposed to asbestos on the job at any time during their life or who suspect they may have been exposed should not smoke. Individuals who have been exposed or suspect they have been exposed to asbestos fibers on the job, through the environment, or at home via a family contact should inform their doctor about their exposure history and whether or not they experience any symptoms.
The symptoms of asbestos-related diseases may not become apparent for many decades after the exposure.
It is particularly important to check with a doctor if any of the following symptoms develop:. A thorough physical examination, including a chest x-ray and lung function tests, may be recommended. The chest x-ray is currently the most common tool used to detect asbestos-related diseases. However, it is important to note that chest x-rays cannot detect asbestos fibers in the lungs, but they can help identify any early signs of lung disease resulting from asbestos exposure. Studies have shown that computed tomography a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body taken from different angles; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine may be more effective than conventional chest x-rays at detecting asbestos-related lung abnormalities in individuals who have been exposed to asbestos.
A lung biopsy, which detects microscopic asbestos fibers in pieces of lung tissue removed by surgery, is the most reliable test to confirm the presence of asbestos-related abnormalities. A bronchoscopy is a less invasive test than a biopsy and detects asbestos fibers in material that is rinsed out of the lungs. It is important to note that these tests cannot determine how much asbestos an individual may have been exposed to or whether disease will develop.
Studies have shown that exposure to asbestos may increase the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma a relatively rare cancer of the thin membranes that line the chest and abdomen. Although rare, mesothelioma is the most common form of cancer associated with asbestos exposure. In addition to lung cancer and mesothelioma, some studies have suggested an association between asbestos exposure and gastrointestinal and colorectal cancers, as well as an elevated risk for cancers of the throat, kidney, esophagus, and gallbladder.
However, the evidence is inconclusive. Although pleural plaques are not precursors to lung cancer, evidence suggests that people with pleural disease caused by exposure to asbestos may be at increased risk for lung cancer. Asbestos fibers are not metabolized in the normal sense of the word, and amphibole fibers that are retained in the lung do not appear to undergo any major changes. However, chrysotile fibers appear to undergo some type of breakdown or alteration in the lung. This conclusion is based primarily on measurements of asbestos levels in the lung as a function of exposure duration.
With continuing exposure of animals, amphibole levels tend to rise linearly, whereas chrysotile levels reach a steady-state concentration within several months. These data from animal studies are supported by a number of human studies in which the ratio of amphibole to chrysotile concentration in lung tissue was much higher than expected based on the composition of the inhaled fibers.
Finkelstein and Dufresne discerned patterns in their data suggestive that lung concentrations of chrysotile fibers would reach plateaus in humans after decades of exposure under occupational conditions. If you have changed your email address then contact us and we will update your details.
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