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Lifespan David Sinclair Inbunden. Ladda ned. Spara som favorit. As a consultant to the plastics industry, Ottmar Brandau's focus is on using his engineering knowhow and production management experience to improve quality and productivity, cut down cycle time and introduce secondary processes such as inline printing.

Types of Plastics

This book is a thoroughly practical handbook that provides engineers and managers with the toolkit to improve production and engineering aspects in their own businesses - saving money, increasing output and improving competitiveness by adopting new technologies. In this book, Brandau covers the engineering aspects of bottle production and the relevant production processes focusing on blow molding , along with plant layout and organization and production management, to produce the definitive handbook for engineers and managers alike.

The figure above illustrates how documentation and use of the accumulated knowledge developed over time. About 30 years ago, the first digital 2D drawings still left a great deal of scope for interpretation, especially with respect to design elements that were complex and difficult, or even impossible, to describe in geometrical terms.

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The s saw the introduction of 3D systems that were able to display free-form surfaces and design elements of sophisticated containers. This kind of visualization was still somewhat feature oriented, but around the turn of the millennium, larger companies started using digital processes.


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Unlike mere mold makers, such companies — in a manner similar to machinery and systems suppliers that offer a comprehensive mold service — have adopted a process approach, which also means that questions of transport or filling are already addressed during the development phase. This comprehensive approach can best be described by the maxim "Think process — not product.

For example, modification of the shoulder part of a bottle can be analyzed and evaluated in different variants to establish the best solution as a benchmark. Such knowledge-based systems enable organizations to maintain the accumulated expertise and make it accessible to all employees, irrespective of their geographical location.

This is the only way short development times can be achieved in a cost-efficient manner. It should be noted, however, that only high-end systems such as Unigraphics NX permit such a style of working and offer an efficient support in the day-to-day work. Even before the first stroke of the pen or the first click of the mouse in the CAD system, a number of issues must have been settled to permit an efficient and speedy development of a product design in cooperation with the customer.

In this respect, the sequence in which the questions are addressed is not critical and may differ with each specific project. One of the first things to determine is the intended product life cycle.

Handbook Of Bottle Production And Preforms (Plastics Design Library) (Hardcover)

Will it be a premium product with a very long useful life? A mineral water bottle for the catering trade, for example, which is placed on the table by the waiter, must have a high-quality design that stands the test of time as well as being physically robust.

Premium products also serve to enhance the identification with the brand. Global carbonated soft drink CSD suppliers sell their products in bottles with a characteristic design, which are good examples of long-life products.

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At the other end of the range, there are low-cost bottles for six packs, discount chains, or seasonal products that may only be offered for a single summer. Such seasonal products can be found in Asia, for example, where certain types of tea are sold in bottles that are specifically designed for each harvesting season.

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Bottles, Preforms and Closures

This of course results in very short life cycles for the container designed. In this context the question of whether the bottle is intended to be returnable or nonreturnable will be answered. Identification of competitors and the specific products with which the new container will compete will affect the bottle design. It is hardly useful to develop a product only to discover that it is too similar to something already offered by a competitor.

Here, a close cooperation with the customer's marketing department is required. Another key issue is the product for which the bottle will be used.

Still or carbonated mineral water, CSDs, beer, fruit juice, tea, or dairy products each require different design features. Directly related to the contents is the question of the filling method, which also should be discussed in the very early design phases. Will the contents be aseptically filled or hot filled?

The IFSQN Mission

Will the bottle be pressurized? Will a nozzle be used to spray nitrogen over the contents to eliminate oxygen from the headspace?


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  • It is also important to know if and how much the contents tend to foam. Will a long-tube filler or spreader be used?