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I am now an avid mycology and ethnobotany student and have just cast aside my chef and painting quals to pursue a career in enviro science and sustainable development. Feel free to PM me if this discussion doesn't fit the thread, and thank you for putting so much time and effort into such valuable works. Thanks for the interest. And apologies for my slow reply but I don't get much chance to visit any forum these days.

If you run into any problems or questions, just let me know. Fastest responses from me are always via email. Good on you for writing the book mate, I personally wouldn't do it on tryptamines but I'm keen to give it a read. I'll send you an email. I'm majoring in pharmacology so maybe just maybe I'll be able to understand a little bit of it haha hopefully. You need to be a member in order to leave a comment. Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Already have an account? Sign in here. Ethnobotany Search In. Prev 1 2 Next Page 2 of 2. Recommended Posts. Posted January 16, Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. Posted February 4, Hehe d00d. Posted March 23, Posted March 24, Scarecrow, the links for free PDFs of this book are in post 13 of this thread. Posted March 27, KT, I respect your works. Please let me know if you need help from an illustrator and graphic artist, I would be happy to help.

Posted March 29, edited. Posted June 9, edited. That's really cool, I had thought SAB was completely out of inventory. Nice to hear I'm wrong. I suspect that is more than would have occurred without it. Thanks to all of those people and anyone acquiring a copy from someone other than me.

Edited June 9, by trucha. Posted June 9, Posted June 12, Excellent, I am looking forward to working with you on this project, and perhaps others Posted August 27, There is a saying in book production that the better the book the worse it will sell. Posted August 30, edited. Truthfully , : " more than you need to know " Edited August 30, by Heretic. Posted November 8, Thanks for the nice thoughts.

Posted November 9, edited. Sometimes, our works last far into th future after we are gone Edited November 15, by shonman. Posted April 13, The total time-course effect of 5-HT release in all studied brain regions defined as an area under the curve AUC is presented in Fig. The total time-course effect of glutamate release in all studied brain regions defined as an area under the curve AUC is presented in Fig.

Data represent an olive tail moment. Olive Tail moment is defined as the product of the tail length and the fraction of total DNA in the tail. This interaction can lead to complex behavioral and neurochemical responses.

Blockade of intraneuronal serotonin transport by 5-MeO-DIPT led to a dose-dependent increase in extracellular 5-HT level in the rat striatum, nucleus accumbens, and frontal cortex as found in our study. Previous in vitro data of Sogawa et al. Enhancement of DA content in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurons is responsible for ability of several psychostimulant drugs to cause drug dependence and addiction. The data supporting our results were reported by Pehek et al.


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Those receptors might directly affect local dendritic release of DA and subsequently increase extracellular DA level in mesolimbic or mesocortical DA terminals as suggested by Celada et al. Moreover, high affinity of tryptamine hallucinogens for 5-HT1A receptors reported by deMontigny and Aghajanian , and Titeler et al. The data presented by Tanda et al. We found that 5-MeO-DIPT increased extracellular glutamate level in the striatum at all doses and only at higher doses in the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex. The enhancement of glutamate release by 5-MeO-DIPT may depend on activation of several subtypes of serotonin receptors, and therefore may vary between brain regions.

In our study, the decrease in glutamate release caused by the lowest dose of 5-MeO-DIPT in the nucleus accumbens or lack of effect in the frontal cortex suggests that 5-MeO-DIPT at small concentrations preferentially activates 5-HT1A receptors, causes inhibition of pyramidal cells, and subsequently decreases glutamate release. At higher doses, the effect exerted by 5-HT1A receptors is opposed by 5-HT2A receptors, which results in the stimulation of glutamate release.

The finding that hallucinogens act as agonists of 5-HT2C receptor suggests that these compounds exert some effects via the 5-HT2C receptor subtype. It also appears that activity at the 5-HT2C receptor attenuates many of the behavioral effects of hallucinogens. Furthermore, Halberstadt et al.

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Similar findings have been reported for head-twitch response in mice Fantegrossi et al. Therefore, some effects observed in our study, such as a decrease in DA or glutamate release by a low dose of 5-MeO-DIPT in the striatum or in the nucleus accumbens, respectively, may result from a modulating role of 5-HT2C receptor. However, exact mechanism of the interaction between serotonin receptor subtypes in their effect on brain neurotransmission needs further studies. The possible neurotoxic effects of 5-MeO-DIPT seem to be supported by our findings obtained with the use of the comet assay.

The mechanism of DNA oxidation by amphetamine derivatives is related to an oxidative stress and the formation of highly reactive free radicals. Excessive release of DA and glutamate by MDMA or methamphetamine leads to formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as reactive quinones, which can damage DNA Halliwell and Whiteman Our study is the first to show genotoxic effect of a tryptamine hallucinogen. However, other factors such as protective mechanisms and levels of antioxidants which control free radical generation, may also be affected by 5-MeO-DIPT.

DMT (Episode 1 - A Trip Through the Garden - A Short Guide to Plant-based Substances)

Alteration in the ability of rats to perform certain cognitive tasks in Cincinnati water maze Williams et al. All these observations suggest that tryptamine hallucinogens need further extensive studies as they are among the most popular groups of illicit drugs. In summary, the results of our study demonstrate that exposure of rats to the tryptamine hallucinogen 5-MeO-DIPT produces changes in extracellular serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate levels in cortical and subcortical rat brain regions.

Our findings also support the conclusion that hallucinations after administration of tryptamine analogues may be mediated by changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission. The progressive oxidative damage of DNA produced by a single dose of 5-MeO-DIPT indicates development of oxidative stress and suggests marked neurotoxicity of this drug.

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Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Open Access. First Online: 26 July Introduction Hallucinogens are active substances that alter consciousness and affect the human psyche. Open image in new window. The 5-HT release enhancing effect at the lowest dose was the weakest but still significant in the frontal cortex Fig. The 5-HT tissue content was increased in the striatum and nucleus accumbens and remained unchanged in the frontal cortex. Aghajanian GH, Marek GJ Serotonin induces excitatory postsynaptic in apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal cells.

Neuropsychopharmacology — Google Scholar. Araneda R, Andrade R 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors mediate opposing responses on membrane excitability in rat association cortex.

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Neuroscience — PubMed Google Scholar. Neuropharmacology — CrossRef Google Scholar. Halberstadt AL Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens.

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Neuropsychopharmacol — CrossRef Google Scholar. Halliwell B Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now? Halliwell B, Whiteman M Measuring reactive species and oxidative damage in vivo and in cell culture: how should you do it and what do the results mean? Binding properties, brain distribution, and functional role. Lucas G, Spampinato U Role of striatal serotonin 2A and serotonin 2C receptor subtypes in the control of in vivo dopamine outflow in the rat striatum. Nakagawa T, Kaneko S Neuropsychotoxicity of abused drugs: molecular and neural mechanisms of neuropsychotoxicity induced by methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Ecstasy , and 5-Methoxy-N, N-diisopropyltryptamine Foxy.

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp — Google Scholar. Paxinos G, Watson C The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. Pazos A, Palacios JM Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain.